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The Magazine for Tandy' Computer Customers 

10 Years 



I 1 








I 1 I : : 1 - I , 1 I J * * \ 

Summer Issue 

1 l 

Tried, true and 

Ten years ago this August, a 
handful of Radio Shack people, 
including myself, were in the 
Warwick Hotel in New York City 
excited and ready to tell the 
world about our new Radio 
Shack TRS-80 personal com- 
puter. Based on the Z-80 micro- 
processor, it had 4K of memory, 
included a CPU, keyboard, dis- 
play and cassette recorder and 
sold for $599.95. We were proud 
to present such an innovative, 
quality product. 

Earlier this month, at the 
Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New 
York, an entourage of Radio 
Shack personnel, including my- 
self, commanded the attention of 
the industry as we announced 
five new additions to our Tandy 
computer product line. Again, 
we were proud to be presenting 
such innovative, quality 

The truth is, we've always 
been a leader in the industry and 
we absolutely plan to keep it that 
way. Our new products comple- 
ment our already powerful prod- 
uct line, enabling us to offer the 
right computer for everyone 
from businesses that need com- 
patibility and connectivity to 
first-time home users. 

WeVe been in the personal 
computer business as long as 
anyone, but we've been in the 
technology business a lot longer 
than most — over 66 years. We've 
learned what it takes to have sat- 
isfied customers who return to 
our stores and computer centers 
again and again. 

Quality, technology, compati- 
bility, connectivity and longevity 
are our watchwords for success. 
That's why we can say with pride 
that there is no better value than 
our product line. 

— John V. Roach 

Chairman, CEO and President 
Tandy Corporation 




Currently, my office, an agent for Chicago Title Insurance Company, op- 
erates two portable Tandy 200 computers. We use them to do title searches 
in various courthouses, where an abstractor types in all the information 
that was previously written manually. Back in the office, we print it on a 
form, without retyping a report. At the same time, we are able to commu- 
nicate through a local area network to a mini mainframe where I download 
all the title search information for later use and later reference and recall. 

In the six courthouses where we search titles, the first time we appeared 
with the computer, we attracted quite a bit of attention. People want to see 
what we are doing and what the end result will be. We have found that the 
time it takes us to do a completed title search has been cut down. 

William G. Schwab 


Carbon County Abstract Co. 

Lehighton, PA 



Cause for celebration 

We hope you enjoy this special "ten years in computing" anniversary' is- 
sue of ANSWERS. We have loaded it with information about our company 
from our humble foray into the microcomputer industry' to our current po- 
sition as purveyor of the Number 1 selling PC-compatible. 

As Tandy computers are prevalent in school systems as well as busi- 
nesses, we've included a brief history of our Radio Shack Education Divi- 
sion and articles about two of the many educational institutions that have 
found our computers to be beneficial in both classroom and administrative 

In the business profile articles in this issue, there is frequent reference 
to earlier models of our computers. While many of these systems have 
been upgraded, several are still serving the needs of a variety of businesses. 
That says a lot for the quality and longevity we continue to build into our 
computer products. 

With our new computer products, the pride continues. That's just cause 
for celebration! 

A bit of trivia 

While collecting information for our 
anniversary issue, we happened onto 
the board in this photo. As we were 
reminiscing about "the old days," we 
thought it might be fun to test your 
recollection of our computer product 

We'll tell you what it is in our next 
issue! Hint: It has something to do with 
one of our early models. 

Are you using your Tandy /Radio Shack computer in an interesting manner? We'd like to hear about it. Just send 
us a brief description of your application, including the software and model number of the computer you're 
using. If we select your application for possible inclusion in Answers Magazine, we'll contact you — so be sure 
to include your address and phone number. Letters sent become the property of the magazine. Sorry, we can't 
return any letters received (so don't include diskettes, photos, etc.). Address letters to: Answers Magazine. 300 
One Tandy Center, Fort Worth, Texas 76102. 

Summer 1987 


Vol. 2, No. 4 


Crime fighting computers: Tandy portable computers help 

a Florida police department save time on reports 6 

Simple reservations: An Illinois-based motel chain 

computerizes to better serve its patrons 8 

On the air: Tandy computers are a vital part of a public broadcast 

station's operations both in and out of the control room 18 

Scoreboard central: A Pennsylvania firm uses Tandy computers 

to track up-to-the minute sports information 20 

Big profits for a small company: A Silicon Valley 

brokerage service relies on Tandv 3000s 22 


Ten years of excellence: A short history of Radio 

Shack's role in the computer industry 10 

And now . . . : Radio Shack unveils its new Tandy computer 

products with fanfare in New York City . . 13 

Getting better all the time: An 80386-based microcomputer 

heads the list of new Tandy computer products 14 


Commitment with conviction: Radio Shack's Education 

Div ision is dedicated to the educational computing community 24 

The computer education edge: Determination and 

cooperation bring computers to a North Carolina school system 26 

Not just for classrooms anymore: The library of a northwest 

university applies Tandy computers to a variety of tasks 28 

In fine formation: The Tandy 1000 helps a southern 

university's marching band get in step ..31 


The shape of things to come: Industry leaders discuss the 

future at Tangent's annual conference 4 

Editorial Director 

David VI. Hrrki'i 
Managing Editor 

Tana C. C-rnlili 
Contributing Writers 

Jay linger, Fran McCJehee , 

Michcle Ryan, Doug Shafer, 

Scott JC. Uofford 
Art Director 

Barry King 
Contributing Artists 

Doug Tipping, Del>orah Mams, Rick Fass 

Director of Photography 

John Timhlin 
Contributing Photographers 

Rav Proska, Rick Dvkes, Ccm Lon>, 

Scott K Woflord 

Donna Levy 

Fred Rrussow, Janice Peace 

Entire contents ■■*■"■' Copyright I9S7, Tandy Corporation. All rights reserved. Reproduction in 
whole or part without permission is prohibited. Answers Magazine is published quarterly by 
Tandy Corporation, Fort Worth, Texas 76102. The torn pans cannot be liable for pictorial or 
typographical errors. Not responsible tor unsolicited manuscripts or photographs 
Tandy, DeskMate. Profile, SCRIPSIT, Radio Shack and TRN SO registered TM Tandy Corp 
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Microsoft. Inc. ATfitT/TM AT&T Lotus 1-2-3/TM Lotus Development Corp. PFS/TM Software 
Publishing I'NIV Bell TM Bell Laboratories 3Com. 3 + . EtherSeries/TM 3Com Corp. 
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FilePro 16 Plus/TM The Small Computer Co. Intel/TM Intel Corp. Commodore PFT/TM 
Commodore. Apple, Lisa/TM Apple Computer Co. Trackstar/TM Diamond Ace/TM Franklin. 
Adam/TM Coleco. Atari/TM Atari. Texas Instruments TM Texas Instruments. Kaypm/TM 

The Shape 
of Things 
to Come: 

The fifth annual Tangent business 
users meeting, held 1 April 27-29, WH7 
in Fort Worth, Texas, brought Tandy 
computer users, Tandy (Corporation/ 
Radio Shack management and com- 
puter industry leaders together, \\ bile 
ma in su bjt *cts w ere addressed di i ring 
the three day conference, several re- 
curring themes clearly indicated there 
are definite roads the computer indus- 
try is taking in terms of advancements 
and the setting of standards. The infor- 
mation and quotes tised in this article 
are drawn from the text of speeches 
made during the conference. 

With the complexity of the com- 
puter market today, it is little wonder 
that Bill Cates, Chairman of Microsoft 
Corporation called 19S7 'The year of 
great confusion in personal comput- 
ing." Amid the confusion, however, 
Gates conceded, "A lot of the answers 
are coining into place. UNIX and net- 
working are finally shaping up and 
now there's the OS/2 operating sys- 
tem." He also hailed OS/2 as "a very 
major step forward" that will remove 
the limitations of MS-DOS by allowing 
the running of multiple applications 
and access to more memory. 

More speed, better software 

The one topic repeatedly discussed 

at the conference was the hardware 
element Cates said would produce 
"far better machines" for the future: 
the Intel 80386 microprocessor. Ac- 
cording to Cates, oxer the next two to 
three years, the software industry will 
develop the pieces necessary to fully 
utilize the power of the 80386. In the 
interim, users can take advantage of 
the increased speed of the 80386 
while using MS-DOS software and the 
forthcoming software for OS/2. "Once 
the system software and applications 
for the 80386 are developed," Cates 
said, "the industry will he on a plateau 
of relatixe calm for five to six xears ." 

Microsoft (Chairman. Hill Gates 

The introduction of the 80386 com- 
puters is a dexelopment which Doug 
Michels, Vice President of the Santa 
Cruz Operation, dex eloper of SCO 
XENIX, called "a major breakthrough 
in price/performance computing, 
which will he held hack due only to a 
lack of understanding as to the poten- 
tial of the new microprocessor. People 
haven't seen hoxv radical this break- 
through is because exerxbody insists 
on looking at both 80286 and 80386 
machines as single user workstations," 
Michels explained. "What they miss is 
that with this much power, a lot of the 
computing that has traditionally been 
done with larger computers, will now 
be possible on a microcomputer." 

The importance of being 

The widespread acceptance of the 
the IBM PC began an industry-wide 

move toward standards. These stan- 
dards have given the computer indus- 
try a sense of order and direction. 
Users, Michels said, have "seen the 
benefits of an industry adopting stan- 
dard hardware, software and operat- 
ing systems." From the user's point of 
view, a computer's value is based on 
having a wide range of softvv are from 
which to choose. 

According to Cates, although main 
standards have been set, there is a gap 
in standardized operating sv stems. "At 
the low end for single user systems, the 
standard clearly is MS-DOS and that 
will continue," he said. "At the very 
high end, machines costing more than 
three million dollars, IBM has set sev- 
eral kev standards." It is in the middle 


in the Second 


area above MS-DOS and below main- 
frames where confusion exists as to 
xv hat the standard operating system 
will be. "Microsoft expects that mid- 
dle tier will be standardized by the 
UNIX/XENIX operating system," 
Cates predicted. 

Looking to the future of standards 
and Tandy computers, Tandy ( Corpora- 
tion President, (Chief Executive Offi- 
cer and Chairman of the Board, John 
Roach, sees the MS-DOS standard 
continuing because, as he said, MS- 
DOS is "the standard of compatibility 
the software industry is really support- 
ing." He assured users that as the OS/2 
operating system comes into play, 
Tandy computers will support new 
standards of compatibility. Roach fur- 
ther stressed the company's commit- 
ment to the XENIX community; a 
sector of the microcomputer market- 
place where Tandy has long been a 
major force. 

Operating systems + 
applications = confusion 

Now that standards are being set in 
the multiuser arena, the debate — and 
a lot of confusion — continues over 
when it is best to use multiuser sys- 
tems, when it is best to use local area 
networks and when it is best to run 
stand-alone DOS. Michels gave his 
views on the XENIX/LAN/DOS con- 
troversy pointing out the applications 
best suited for each operating system. 

"There are many things that you can 
do on a LAN that you can't do on a 
multiuser system," Michels said. "If 
you need to run graphics software, the 
best bet is a single user DOS system. If 
you need to share resources, disks and 
printers, it is best to do that on a LAN. 
If you want to do word processing, 
accounting and database, a multiuser 
system is perfect and actually per- 
forms better than LANs." 

In Michels' opinion, when the goal 
is shared access to data, desktop 
PCs — even if networked — are not the 
answer. "To share data on a small mul- 
tiuser system is a problem which has 
been well solved because the solu- 
tions have evolved over fifteen years," 
Michels said. 

All for one, workgroup 

As networking becomes more per- 
vasive, it will, like other forms of tech- 
nology, become more standardized. 
Before that can occur, however, some 
important market requirements will 
need to be satisfied to enable the net- 
work industry to move forward. 

Being an advocate of connectivity, 
Roach called the industry to action 
saying, "It is clearly time for network- 
ing to become a reality" While the 
industry continues to wrestle with the 
issue of connectivity, Roach said, it is 
clear that the need is to connect the 
total world through networks, mul- 
tiuser systems and any number of 
other protocols that are important to 
users today. Reinforcing Radio Shack's 
commitment to both value and con- 
nectivity, Roach said, "Our goal is rela- 
tively simple: To make connectivity of 
our hardware as simple as possible and 
do it on a building block basis so end 
users are not forced to invest in more 
connectivity than they need " 

A major part of Radio Shack's con- 
nectivity strategy involves the 3 + 
product family from 3Com Corpora- 
tion. William Krause, 3Com's Presi- 
dent, presented his views noting, "We 
have to continue to maintain an open 
systems architecture. We must make 
progress in ease of everything and pro- 
mote full connectivity which is both 
connection and communication." 

Workgroup computing technology, 
Krause said, is being driven by net- 
working technology being used in two 
kinds of applications, low bandwidth 
and high bandwidth. Low bandwidth 
applications are data entry, transaction 
processing, inventory control and ac- 
counting. High bandwidth applica- 
tions allow an emerging type of 
computing that is both graphics and 
network intensive and is oriented to 
office productivity. 

"People are buying networks for 
primarily economic reasons," Krause 
emphasized. "They want to gain the 
benefit of cost reduction by sharing 
expensive peripherals such as disk 
drives and printers." Another reason 

for networking is having the ability to 
run high bandwidth applications, such 
as computer-aided design and desktop 
publishing and to exchange informa- 
tion from the workstation and the 
workgroup server. 

Another key direction touched 
upon by Krause dealt with connectiv- 
ity. "I think we have discovered that 
people in business do not work stand- 
alone and they want to communicate 
as much as they need to compute," he 
said. "When considering a workgroup 
computing system, open systems ar- 
chitecture, whether it is based on DOS 
or UNIX, is important because it gives 
users the freedom and flexibility to 
pick and choose the application tools, 
both hardware and software, that best 
suit their needs." 

"For single user 

systems, the standard 

is clearly MS-DOS 

and that will 



Workgroups + multiuser = the 
future of computing 

Although there will continue to be 
users wanting to do stand-alone com- 
puting, and others wanting to use mul- 
tiuser business applications, a higher 
percentage of users will want to do 
both. Accommodating users who de- 
sire both will necessitate the ability to 
run XENIX and MS-DOS on one net- 
work. Being able to access shared files 
on a server that is running either MS- 
DOS, XENIX or OS/2, Gates believes, 
will be the key to growth in the area of 
local area networks. 

For those whose computer needs 
can't be solved by choosing between 
DOS or XENIX, there's good news: 
XENIX and DOS can coexist. Accord- 
ing to Michels, a common coexistence 
solution is sharing a hard disk through 
partitioning. XENIX has a wide range 
of utilities that move data back and 
forth between partitions. 

A more advanced alternative is 
XENIX- NET, a merge between mul- 
tiuser and LAN that allows a local area 
network, a multiuser system and sin- 
gle user systems to be combined and 
interoperating. "I think, ultimately, 
most people, instead of using termi- 
nals or in addition to using terminals, 

will use PCs as desktop workstations," 
Michels said. 

Other glimpses of the future 

A revolutionary form of storage, op- 
tical storage, promises to take hold in 
the next few years. Known as compact 
disk read only memory (CD-ROM), 
the technology uses digital encoding 
to store up to 540 million characters of 
information, more than enough to 
store the Encyclopaedia Britannica, on 
a single disk. "CD-ROM is going to 
allow us to make the PC much more of 
a multi-media device," Gates said. 

"If you had to describe the one sin- 
gle application that we're really trying 
to make sense out of, it's this idea of 
the integrated office," Gates said. "You 
have stand-alone PCs, you have UNIX- 
based machines, you have minicompu- 
ters; but it's not easy enough to set up 
systems so that it really makes sense to 
have a computer on every desktop." 

In closing, Roach, who has been a 
major force behind Tandy computers 
since research and development was 
conducted on the Radio Shack TRS-80 
in 1976, stressed Tandy Corporation's 
continuing commitment to deliver 
value, not just products, to end users. 
"We believe that we can firmly declare 
that we, more than any other MS-DOS 
compatible manufacturer, are selling 
value, not just boxes," Roach said. By 
drawing from more than ten years of 
experience in the microcomputer in- 
dustry, Roach said, Tandy Corporation 
will continue to "provide hardware 
features that clearly differentiate our 
products in the marketplace." 

The computer of your dreams 

In summary, Gates visualized what 
the dream machine of the future might 
be. "I see the single user workstation 
continuing to be based on an evolution 
of DOS, which now is OS/2. I see it 
having a graphic user interface and 
almost always being tied to a network. 
I really think that the pointing device, 
like the mouse, will become increas- 
ingly popular. I see all of these things 
coming together to create fantastic 
single and multiuser workstations. 

"I really believe that personal com- 
puters, for both large and small com- 
panies, will become a fundamental 
part of how that company does busi- 
ness. Of course, if that comes true, it 
will be very exciting because it means 
that although personal computing has 
grown a lot over the last five or six 
years, there will be a lot of growth 
ahead of us." 

Putting the 
byte into 
crime fighting 

Tandy computers provide an 
innovative edge for police 

Technology touches every aspect of 
our lives, sometimes without our ever 
realizing it. Such is the case with the 
Lakeland, Florida, Police Department 
where a Tandy 102 laptop computer is 
becoming standard issue equipment 
to field personnel. 

Since the introduction of laptop 
computers, officers complete their pa- 
perwork in about half the time. What 
does this mean to the citizens of Lake- 
land? It means police personnel are 
able to return to their patrol and inves- 
tigative duties 50 percent faster. 

After some experimentation, Offi- 
cer Joe Sah adore, computer coordina- 
tor for the Lakeland PD, decided to 
investigate a program the St. Peters- 
burg, Florida, Police Department had 
developed for Radio Shack Model 100 
portable computers with a state grant. 
(See Answers, Winter 1986). 

After further evaluation of the St. 
Petersburg program, Lakeland pur- 
chased 67 Tandy 102s for field person- 
nel in October 1986. The department 
also purchased a Tandy 3000 HI) with 
a 40 megabyte hard drive, the XENIX 
operating system, and three DT-100 

Using computers* Jot' Salvntore has strrnm- 
Uned the depart rm •tit's paperwork. 

terminals. The Tandy 3000 acts as a file 
server storing all reports written on 
the laptops. The report generator pro- 
gram installed in the 102s is a version 
of that used by the St. Petersburg po- 
lice. Since the program is written in 
BASIC, it is a straightforward process 
for police agencies to change the pro- 
gram to meet their specific needs, ac- 
cording to Sah adore. 

The Tandy 3000 uses a program spe- 
cially developed by a police supply 
company for police departments using 
laptop computers. The program also 
runs under XENIX. 

"The software allows officers to 
send their reports to be electronically 
manipulated by division supervisors at 
the station,*' Salvadore explained. "It 
divides the department into three 
divisions — patrol, criminal investiga- 
tion division (CID), and special inves- 
tigation unit (SIU). As a result, 
information is assured of being routed 
to the proper division." 

Laptop literacy 

Before officers are issued a Tandy 
102, they must attend a 40-hour train- 
ing course conducted by ( officer Sah a- 
dore. In the course, they are taught 
computer literacy including how to 
write, edit, send and retrieve reports. 
They also receive information on com- 
puter crime. 

"Currently, 57 percent of Lake- 
land's 146 sworn police personnel who 
generate reports do so on a Tandy 
102," Salvadore said. "We plan to have 
even officer equipped with a 102. In 
fact, we are including the cost of the 
computer in the overall cost of outfit- 
ting a new recruit." 

When an officer accesses the Tandy 
3000 via laptop computer, he is asked 
for a badge number, his password and 
division. Each time an officer makes a 
call, he is required to file a report 
which is assigned an event, or incident, 
number. When the officer is ready to 

file a report, he again enters his divi- 
sion and the report event number 
which the Tandy 3000 HD validates. 
Reports are transmitted either 
through one of three direct connect 
lines in each division or externally over 
the telephone line. 

Additionally, the division supervisor 
responsible for approving reports can 
log onto the system at any one of the 
terminals in the department. The su- 
pervisor may review reports by keying 
in the corresponding report number. 
The computer brings the report up on 
the terminal screen exactly as it ap- 
pears on a printed page. After rev iew- 
ing the report, the supervisor will 

tfcfcfw d incident reports can l>e acx'essetl i/a 
a i terminal. 

approve or disapprove the report and a 
printout is made. A DMP-2100P prints 
three copies of all approved reports 
and one copy of disapproved reports. 
The supervisor circles the areas on a 
disapproved report that need correc- 
tion and returns the report to the offi- 
cer who then makes his corrections on 
his 102. 

Information search and seizure 

The Lakeland PD has taken its ap- 
plication a step beyond that of St. 
Petersburg by using the Tandy 3000 
HD to provide electronic archival stor- 
age of the department's more than 
5,400 reports to date. The computer 
will list all approved and disapproved 
reports by event number. A built-in 
accounting system keeps track of who 
signs on, when and the amount of time 
spent on the system. 

Officer Salv adore says one of the 
many advantages of the system can be 
seen when making investigative inqui- 
ries. "We can do a single, double or 
triple word search on all reports in the 
svstem. The Tandv 3000 will list the 

reports by event number that meet the 
search criteria and generate a printout 
of the first three lines of every report 
found in the search." 

According to Salvadore, there have 
been arrests made based on investiga- 
tive inquiries using the information 
stored in the Tandy 3000. For us to 
make a request from central data proc- 
essing usually takes at least 24 hours," 
Salv adore explained, "Even then, cen- 
tral DP does not store the entire report 
like we do here." 

Newly-appointed Chief of Police 
Ronald Nenner was commander of 
CID when the computer project went 
into effect. "Because of the nature of 
our investigations (in CID), we gener- 
ate a lot of paperwork," he said, adding 
that they have received many positive 
comments on the project. "The State 
Attorney's office is very happy with the 
system. They have commented on how 
much easier it is to read our reports 
now, since there are very few mistakes 
or spelling errors." 

Big bucks benefits 

Not only has the system proved to be 
a time saver, but the department has 
also seen actual cost sav ings. Accord- 
ing to Salvadore, the department had 
been -ordering report forms on a 
monthly basis. In October and Novem- 
ber 1986, the department spent 
$1,150 and $1,350 respectively on re- 
port forms. In December, however, the 
amount dropped to $55. As of April 
1987, the department still had a suffic- 
ient supply of forms for officers who 
had not received their 102s and were 
still doing reports by hand. "We Ye sav- 
ing big bucks just in report forms and 
correction fluid," Nenner added. 

Currently, the department uses a 
system which may require up to four 
forms to complete one report. The 102 
can typically take a five-page form and 
reduce it to one page, using only those 
modules within each report that are 
needed. "The average report is five 
pages," Salvadore noted. "This year, 
we made 50,000 service calls, of which 
20,000 will probably result in a paper- 
bound report at a cost of approxi- 
mately 50 cents per report. The 
computer will generate a single page 
of a report at seven-tenths of a penny 
per page. There's an immediate cost 

The reactions from officers have 
been very favorable. The laptops have 
been so popular that, when a rumor 
started that the computers were going 

to be removed, many officers began 
asking Ray Dils, manager of the local 
Radio Shack Computer Center, to talk 
with Officer Salvadore and persuade 
him to keep the laptops. 

The system is used for more than 
just archiving and processing reports. 
On the Tandy 3000, the staff sergeant 
uses the filer program on DcskMate II 
for inventory puq>oses. Additionally, 
officers have discovered the conven- 
ience of using electronic mail to leave 
messages for officers on other shifts. 

A 40-hour computer course is mm part of an 
officer's training. 

Lakeland has plans for its system, 
which is under study by several local 
police departments and the sheriff's 
department. One feature Lakeland 
hopes to implement soon will aid local 
newspapers in obtaining police infor- 
mation. Currently, when a report is 
approved, the system will ask if the 
information is to be released to the 
press. If so, the system removes 
the phone numbers and addresses of 
suspects and victims listed and places 
the information in a "Press File " ( )nce 
additional coordination activities are 
completed, newspaper reporters can 
call in and retrieve the information 

A long term goal is to network the 
entire county to facilitate easier and 
timelier exchange of information 
among law enforcement agencies. 

"We are really happy with the sys- 
tem," Salv adore concluded. "The offi- 
cers like them because they can get 
their paperwork done in about half the 
time, which means they have more 
time to do the rest of their job — 
protecting citizens." 

Keeping havens "hassle-free" for 

Relatively inexpensive gasoline 
prices and discounted airline fares 
have created a prosperous boom in the 
travel and tourism industry. The eco- 
nomic impact associated with this 
thriving trade has spawned a competi- 
tive spirit among hotels, motels and 
resorts eager to offer a little "rest and 
relaxation** to today *s traveler. 

Regal 8 Inns, a motel chain head- 
quartered in Mt. Vernon, Illinois, has 
captured a sizeable portion of that 

The Model 100 is a mainstay in Regal 8 
lobbies nationwide. 

market with an ingenious plan to pro- 
vide "hassle-free'* service and com- 
fortable accommodations to its 
patrons at a fraction of the usual cost. 

When the company opened its first 
property in 1970 in Paducah, Ken- 
tucky, the concept of a mid-priced mo- 
tel with more than adequate services 
appealed to many travelers. Today, 
Regal 8 Inns operates 52 properties in 
21 states employing more than 1,000 
people nationwide. As the company 
grew rapidly, the need for computer- 
based operations became apparent. 

"In 1981, during inflationary times, 
we had some very difficult pricing de- 
cisions to make," explained D. Bruce 
Geary, President of Regal 8 Inns. "I 
went to a Radio Shack and bought our 
first microcomputer, a TRS-80 Model 
III, and VisiCalc software to build a 
pricing program for about thirty dif- 
ferent properties at the time.** 

Geary readily admits his knowledge 
of computers was limited. He had seen 
demonstrations and read articles. "I 
stayed up that night and read the 
manuals and went through the pro- 
gram. Rather than building a fictitious 
example, I developed a model for our 
business. We still use that same pro- 
gram today, but that was only the 

Reservations central 

To record more than 200,000 reser- 
vations annually and track countless 
telephone calls made from more than 
6,000 rooms, Regal 8 Inns resolved to 

computerize operations nationwide 
and developed two very unique appli- 
cations. The company's reservation 
center, located in Centralia, Illinois, is 
designed totally around the Tandy 
6000 multiuser business computer. 

"We started with the Model 16 and 
upgraded to the Tandy 6000. We 
needed the multiuser capabilities and, 


Discussing future plans are (left to right) 
Gene Rogers, David Persclwacher, P.VJ. 
Rao and Bruce Geary: 

quite frankly, there were very few 
companies in the multiuser market,*' 
said Geary. "Tandy was very inventive 
when they introduced the Tandy 6000 
computer. We've used it to its capacity 
with the XENIX operating system.** 

The system, though somewhat com- 
plicated in design, is simple and effec- 
tive peformance-wise. When the 
reservations operator receives an in- 
quiry, regardless of whether or not a 
reservation is made, the information is 
entered into a DT-100 terminal and 
transmitted to the primary Tandy 
6000. This computer is equipped with 
an internal 15 megabyte hard disk and 
an external 35 megabyte hard disk. A 
second identical Tandy 6000 con- 

weary travelers 

Rao has found the Tandy portables 
nearly indispensable. 

nected to the primary system also re- 
ceives the information. 

"We've created a redundant paral- 
lel system that backs itself up automat- 
ically for continuous operation," said 
Geary, "but, based on our experience 
with Tandy's product reliability and 
service, the duplicate system isn't re- 
ally necessary." 

"Reservation problems really come 
down to the human element. We just 
don't have problems mechanically 
with the equipment" added Gene 
Rogers, reservation center manager. 

A third Tandy 6000 computer with 
two internal floppy drives and an ex- 
ternal 15 megabyte hard disk is con- 
nected to the secondary Tandy 6000 
and is used only as an outbound termi- 
nal. On both a national and in-state 
WATS telephone line, the third com- 
puter builds a report even two hours 
which includes reservations, changes 
and/or cancellations and sends the in- 
formation to each Regal 8 Inn across 
the country'. 

Portables and paper work 

With the exception of hard copies of 
records, computerizing the reserva- 
tion center has virtually ended time- 
consuming paper work and, thus, 
reduced labor costs. Each Regal 8 Inn 
office is equipped with a 32K Radio 
Shack Model 100 portable computer 
and a DMP-105 printer to receive and 
document reservation information. 

A custom accessory designed by 
management personnel, P.V.J. Rao 
and David Perschbacher, allows the 
Model 100 to automatically answer 
the telephone. If, for any reason, the 
computer does not receive the infor- 
mation, the reservation center is im- 
mediately notified and the situation 
corrected within minutes. 

Regal 8 has also implemented the 
Model 100 into its telephone account- 
ing system. Several years ago, deregu- 
lation in the communications industry 
allowed not only private ownership of 
telephones but also spelled out major 
changes in telephone billing for the 
motel/hotel industry. For example, if 
each Regal 8 Inn had direct-dial tele- 
phones installed and was equipped to 
collect telephone usage data, substan- 
tial savings in operator assistance costs 
would be realized. 

"Rao got very involved in designing 
a computer system that would load the 
call information into the computer, 
calculate the minutes, determine 
where the call went and price out the 
call," said Geary. 

The software program, written in 
BASIC, tracks and prices every tele- 

phone call made from the motel by 
room number. According to Geary, the 
in-house system and Tandy computers 
have reduced the cost per installation 
75 percent over comparable commer- 
cial call accounting products. 

"Eighty percent of our properties 
now have cost accounting systems us- 
ing Model 100 computers. They pro- 
vided the battery backup capabilities 
we needed," explained Rao. "That's 
the reason we went in that direction." 

Data and messages concerning pay- 
roll, night audits and supply requests 
can also be transmitted to the corpo- 
rate headquarters via the Model 100. 
The company is currently testing and 
assessing this application. 

Regal 8 Inns' future project is to 
implement computer-based cash reg- 
isters throughout the chain. Once 
again, the company has chosen Tandy 
computers. "All of our future cash reg- 
isters will be either Tandy 1000 SXs or 
Tandy 3000s," concluded Geary. 

From TRS-80 to Tandy: 
Ten years of leadership 
in personal computing 

TRS-Mh 1977 

Model 11 1979 

Model III, 1980 

Color Computer, 1980 

Pocket Computer, 1980 

Model 16, 1982 

Model 12, 1983 

Model 4, 1983 

Model 100, 1983 


"We weren't exactly sure who we 
were going to sell them to, but it was 
fairly clear to me that microcomputers 
had great potential with our tradi- 
tional customers." Thus reflected John 
V. Roach, President, Chairman of the 
Board and Chief Executive Officer of 
Tandy Corporation, speaking of his 
company's foray into the microcom- 
puter industry a scant ten years ago in 
1977. The introduction of the Radio 
Shack TRS-80 on August 3 of that year 
not only had a profound effect on the 
corporation, hut also contributed to a 
revolution in society which would ulti- 
mately lead to the Age of Information. 

While microcomputers were availa- 
ble prior to 1977, they were mostly in 
kit form. The introduction of ready-to- 
run preassembled computers like the 
Radio Shack TRS-80, Apple and Com- 
modore PET, laid the foundation for 
the movement of microcomputers into 
businesses, schools and homes on a 
large scale. Recalling the product in- 
troduction at the Warwick Hotel in 
New York City, Roach gibed, 'There 
wasn't much computer media then. In 
fact, most of the media didn't know 
what a microcomputer was, much less 

Rv December 31, 1977, Radio Shack 
had* delivered 5,000 TRS-80s, 4,000 
units more than originally intended for 
production. "We thought we were re- 
ally doing something," chuckled 
Roach. One distinct advantage the 
company had was its nationwide distri- 
bution chain of over (at that time) 
3,000 Radio Shack electronics stores. 

But getting the word about micro- 
computers to the public through 
stores wasn't enough. The February 
1978 issue of Time magazine featured 

"The Computer Society" which 
served to raise public interest in com- 
puters. It was at that same time that 
Radio Shack took to the road in a 
whirlwind of modern day barnstorm- 
ing to introduce the public to its 
microcomputers through a series of 
computer shows staged in over 100 
major cities from coast to coast. 

As the public's awareness of micro- 
computers gained momentum, the 
business world began to take notice. 
Even the major computer companies 
with mainframe computers as their 
mainstay became attentive as micro- 
computers began to appear in data 
processing and other areas performing 
a variety of tasks in all types and sizes 
of businesses. 

Anticipating this trend, Radio Shack 
was ready to accommodate business 
users and in May 1979, introduced the 
Radio Shack TRS-80 Model II as a pro- 
fessional, business-oriented micro- 
computer complete with built-in disk 
drive, 80-column screen, and a propri- 
etary TRS-DOS operating system. 
"There were significant improve- 
ments in technology which allowed us 
to produce the Model II at such a low 
cost for that time period," said Dr. John 
Patterson, Senior Vice President, 
Tandy Computers. "We definitely had 
a specific market in mind for that 

It was this kind of planning and 
strategy that resulted in Radio Shack 
having one-fifth of the microcomputer 
marketplace in these vintage years. 
1979 also marked the introduction of 
VisiCalc, a major spreadsheet software 
effort that provided the conduit for 
management information systems 
(MIS) managers to justify bringing mi- 
cros into the office. Bill Cates and his 
entrepreneurial Microsoft Corpora- 
tion continued to gain recognition as a 
driving force in the software sector of 
the industry having been instrumental 
in the development of BASK' for 
Radio Shack and other pioneering 
computer companies. 

1980 saw the appearance of micro 
systems from new companies as well as 
established mainframe companies. 
Radio Shack introduced the Color 
Computet; targeted to the home users; 
the Pocket Computer I for students 
and field-oriented professionals; and 
the Model III, an updated version of 

the original TRS-80 but with the 
screen, keyboard and CPU all in one 
unit, a feature that would lead to that 
machine's acceptance into the educa- 
tion market. (See page 24) 

The credibility culprit 

Despite undercurrents which 
would eventually sweep microcom- 
puters into the homes, schools and 
businesses of America, credibility, rec- 
ognition and widespread acceptance 
were slow in coming due in part to 
competition among proprietary oper- 
ating systems and the lack of a defined 
and accepted standard. 

Roach recalled, "It was as if micro- 
computers weren't reality. It wasn't 
until around 1980 and '81 — probably 
with the IBM PC announcement — 
that the industry began to get some 
attention, some legitimacy. And, of 
course, then the press got involved." 
To Roach, the IBM announcement was 
important because "all these comput- 
ers were getting into businesses. But 
they weren't coming in through the 
front door; the employees were bring- 
ing them in and using them on their 
own. With IBM's announcement, the 
MIS directors had the opportunity to 
regain control of what was going on in 
their operations." 

IBM's entry into the personal com- 
puter market in 1981 did indeed seem 
to give the machines instant credibility 
in the business arena which in turn 
threw open the doors of education 
which would need the machines to 
prepare students for the future. These 
events in turn made micros We rigueur 
in the home. 

New and sophisticated were the 
watchwords of the ensuing boom years 
for personal computers as software de- 
velopers like Lotus Development Cor- 
poration rushed to take advantage of 
IBM's open architecture and start-up 
hardware companies like Compaq be- 
gan cloning the machine. 

Radio Shack quietly stood as a bea- 
con providing quality products with 
value pricing backed by an extensive 
service and support network it had 
been steadily building. The introduc- 
tion of the Model 16 in 1982 and subse- 
quently the XENIX operating system 
moved Radio Shack into the 16-bit 

Tsunh 2000, 19H3 


Tandy 6000, 1984 

Tund\ 1000, 1984 

Tandy 3000, 1985 

"It was a decision process of select- 
ing what we thought would he the op- 
erating system of the future," said Dr. 
Patterson. "The CPU, operating sys- 
tem and applications software all go 
together and there was more software 
written for UNIX at that time in the 
mini world. A good deal of that soft- 
ware was written in C, By using 
XENIX, we could recompile a lot of 
the C applications and move them 
right into the Model 16 very quickly." 
Subsequently, Radio Shack soon 
boasted the largest installed base of 
XENIX users in the nation. 

More to come 

In 1983, Radio Shack introduced 
over ten new computer configurations 
including the Models 4, 4P, 12, Color 
Computer 2 and the Radio Shack 
Model 100 portable laptop computer 
which became an overnight success, 
particularly with journalists who liked 
its convenient size, weight, built-in 
software and modem. The Tandy 2000, 
Radio Shack's first MS-DOS compati- 
ble computer, heralded the computer 
product line nomenclature change 
from Radio Shack to Tandy. 

Marking the significance of micro- 
computers, 77/ne magazine named the 
personal computer "The Machine of 
the Year" for 1983, a year that was to 
be fraught with failures and a resultant 
slump in the industry as users became 
disillusioned and more demanding. 

Determined to maintain its place as 
a leader in the microcomputer indus- 
try, strategists at Radio Shack surveyed 
the marketplace, made a decision and 
announced its entry into the PC- 
compatible world in November 1984 
with the introduction of the Tandy 
1000. Within a year, that machine 
was the number one selling PC- 

Color Computer 3, 1986 

compatible. "As in the past, we proved 
ourselves to be the price/performance 
leader, especially in terms of features 
and functions we provide initially as 
opposed to being 'add-ons' from other 
manufacturers," noted Roach. 

In 1985, Radio Shack went itself one 
better by making the Tandy 1000 the 
first PC -compatible to sell for under 
$1000. Radio Shack virtually had 
something for everyone from Color 
Computers and laptops to PC/XT and 
PC/AT compatibles, XENIX and net- 
work systems. 

Never one to rest on its laurels, 
Radio Shack reinforced its status with 
more new product introductions in 
1986. The Tandy 1000 SX and EX, the 
Tandy 3000 HL and the Color Com- 
puter 3 were but some of the products 
designed for the business, education 
and home markets. With the addition 
of the 3Com workgroup products 
in 1987, Radio Shack reassured its 
position as a leader in the com- 
puter industry. 

But product is not Radio Shack's 
only focus. Over the years, manage- 
ment has formulated the parameters 

Tandy 1000 EX, 1986 

Tandy 3000 HL, 1986 

for a superior service and support or- 
ganization. Sales strategies incorpo- 
rated the addition of an outside sales 
force 1,200 strong and reinforcement 
of value added reseller programs. 

Radio Shack has been bringing the 
products of technology to market for 
over 66 years. As the company enters 
its second decade in computers, the 
market will continue to turn to Radio 
Shack for quality, compatibility, tech- 
nology, connectivity and longevity. 
That's why there is no better value 
than Tandy computers. 


I^eft: Technicians man the me- 
dia control room. Above: Nota- 
bles from the industry watch 
the film presentation. 

Above: Tandy Chairman 
John Y. Roach began the 
proceedings which were 
attended ova capacity 
crowd (right). 

Below: Radio Shack 
President Rernie Appel 
at the podium in Dallas, 
Texas, with Roach from 
New York on the screen. 

Simulcast highlights 
Tandy's press conference 

Enthusiasm was running high in the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel on 
Monday, August 3, 1987. Not even a New York summer shower 
could dampen the spirits of Tandy Corporation and Radio Shack 
executives who had called a press conference to commemorate 
the company's ten years as a leader in the computer industry and 
to introduce major new Tandy computer products. 

Using simulcast satellite technology, the conference began with 
an upscale multi-media visual presentation which depicted a short 
history of the computer industry. At the film's end, Tandy Presi- 
dent, CEO and Chairman John V. Roach bounded to the podium 
and welcomed the capacity crowd of over 300 journalists and 
security analysts. 

Roach also welcomed some 2000 Radio Shack field personnel 
who were taking part in the festivities via satellite at the annual 
meetings of the company's Business Products Division in Dallas, 
Texas, and of the Western Division, Consumer Products in Ana- 
heim, California. 

This simulcast event marked the first time field personnel had 
participated in major new product introductions. Radio Shack 
President Bernie Appel addressed the conference from the Dallas 
meeting and introduced Rob Myers, Vice President, Business 
Products. The enthusiasm of the field people was obvious as their 
cheers and applause were projected to New York and Anaheim. 

In addition to Roach and Appel, Tandy executives making pre- 
sentations in New York were Dr. John Patterson, Senior Vice 
President, Tandy Computers; Dr. Scott Cutler, Senior Director, 
Software; and Mark Yamagata, Senior Director, Computer 
Products. Radio Shack's commitment to software compatibility 
was emphasized by presentations from Bill Gates, Chairman, 
Microsoft; William L. Krause, President and CEO, 3Com Corpo- 
ration; and Paul Brainerd, President, Aldus Corporation. 

Other industry dignitaries in attendance included Bruce Bas- 
tion, Chairman of the Board, WordPerfect; Bruce Davis, CEO, 
Activision; Ed Esber, CEO, Ashton-Tate; Fred Gibbons, President 
and Chairman, Software Publishing; Dennis Hayes, President, 
Hayes Microcomputer Products; Roger Johnson, President, CEO 
and Chairman of the Board, Western Digital; W.M. "Trip" 
Hawkins, President and Chairman, Electronic Arts; and Bob Met- 
calfe, Chairman of the Board and Senior Vice President, Technol- 
ogy, 3Com. 



Below: Media representa- 
tives interview the Tandy 
CEO. Right: Thumbs up 
from Philip Halev; Man- 
ager, Radio Shack TV/AV 
Department indicate the 
event's success. 


The new look of 

On August 3, 1987, at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New 
York City, Radio Shack announced the latest additions to its 
best-selling line of PC compatible computers and a state-of- 
the-art laser printer. These products reinforce the compa- 
ny's position as a leader in the personal computer industry. 
With a product line that covers most any application, the 
new Tandy computers lead the way in quality and 
technology — at prices that are extremely competitive. 

The Tandy 4000 

80386 power for today and tomorrow 

Based on the Intel 80386 microprocessor, the Tandy 4000 
microcomputer rivals mainframes and minicomputers for 
speed and functionality. In fact, literature on the Tandy 4000 
describes performance in MIPS — a mainframe term speci- 
fying Millions of Instructions Per Second. (The Tandy 4000 
is rated at almost 3 MIPS, versus less than 1 MIPS for an 8 


The four mode, 32-bit microprocessor allows 

MS-DOS software designed for the IBM PC and AT 

to run at a much faster 16 MHz clock speed. 

Additionally, when new operating systems become 

available, such as OS/2, the Tandy 4000 will deliver the full 

potential of the 80386 processor. 

The Tandy 4000 is outfitted with a 1.4 megabyte, 3 l k" 
disk drive. Two additional internal disk drives can be added 
with any combination of 3 f /2" drives, 5 1 /-*" drives, hard disks 
or disk cartridges. Incorporating single in-line memory 
modules (SIMM), one megabyte of memory is standard and 
memory is expandable to four megabytes. Using one- 
megabit chips, total system memory can be expanded to 16 
megabytes. The Tandy 4000 is the computer of the future. 

The Tandy 1400 LT 

MS*DOS power in a portable computer 

MS-DOS compatibility is only the beginning for the Tand) 
1400 LT laptop computer. Because it's portable, popular 
programs like Lotus 1-2-3 or Microsoft Word can be used 
virtually anywhere. In the office, the Tandy 1400 LT is as 
powerful and functional as a desktop computer. 

One of the most notable features of the 1400 LT is its 
display. While many laptops have standard Liquid Crystal 
Displays (LCD), the 1400 LTs 80-character by 25-line dis- 
play utilizes the latest backlit "supertwist" LCD technology 
for sharp resolution and easier reading in low light. 

The 1400 LT comes with two 720K 3 l k" disk drives which 
provide over 1.4 megabytes of disk capacity. The 1400 LT 
runs at a fast 7.16 MHz clock speed. That's 50 percent faster 
than most other PC-compatible laptops. Despite its impres- 
sive capabilities, the 1400 LT weighs only 13'/2 pounds 
and has a convenient carry handle for true portable comput- 
ing power. 


computing power 


The Tandy 1000 TX 

A breakthrough price for 286 technology 

With an 80286 microprocessor, the Tandy 1000 TX is 
destined to change the rules by which price/performance 
computing will be judged. With the 80286, the processing 
speed of a TX is over six times faster than a standard PC XT* 
and over three times faster than the IBM Model 30. 

The Tandy 1000 TX is designed with a durable 3'/2" disk 
drive which can store 720,000 characters of data. A second 
internal Vk" disk drive or a S'/V disk drive can be added 
allowing the system to be tailored to the needs of the user. 

The 80286 8 MHz microprocessor runs all the popular 
MS-DOS programs faster than standard 8088-based PCs. 
For added value, the Tandy 1000 TX includes MS-DOS 3.2, 
GW-BASIC and Personal DeskMate 2— everything neces- 
sary to begin computing. Personal DeskMate 2 features pull- 
down menus and "dialogue boxes" that make selecting 

operations easy, a new Music program and Paint function, 
in addition to text, spreadsheet, database and calendar 

The Tandy 1000 TX comes standard with 640K 
RAM. Five card slots make it easy to expand with an 
internal modem, a 20-megabyte hard disk card, or an 
adapter for connecting to a workgroup environment. Add- 
ing more value, the TX includes many features that cost 
extra on other PCs — monochrome and color graphics, a 
parallel printer adapter, two joystick adapters, a headphone 
jack with volume control and an RS-232C serial port. 


The Tandy 1000 HX 

No more loading MS-DOS from disk 

The innovative spirit behind Tandy computers is evident 
in the 1000 HX, the first desktop computer designed for 
home use with MS-DOS in ROM built-in. When powered 
on, MS-DOS is loaded automatically and is ready to run. 
This ease of operation pkis the low cost makes the Tandy 
1000 HX ideal for the home or classroom. 

The 1000 HX has a number of features including 256k 
RAM, a 3 l k" 720K disk drive and room for a 3 l h" second 
internal disk drive. For maximum flexibility, the HX also 
supports an external S'/V disk drive. Also included is a 
three-voice sound circuit for generating music, and a head- 
phone jack with volume control. The PC-compatible HX 
runs all the popular MS-DOS programs. 

The Tandy 1000 HX comes with Personal DeskMate 2, 
an enhanced version of the versatile six-in-one Per- 
sonal DeskMate program. In the tradition of all 
Tandy 1000s, the HX offers conveniences that cost 
extra on other PCs including adapters for joysticks, 
monochrome and color monitors and a printer. 

* Based on Norton Utilities Computing Index Version 4.0. 


NeW ProduCtS (Continued) 

The Tandy LP 1000 

Affordable desktop publishing is here 

As part of a complete desktop publishing package or as an 
addition to existing computer hardware, the LP 1000 laser 
printer makes any printed computer output sharper, clearer 
and more professional looking. Now, spreadsheets and word 
processing manuscripts can he produced with near typeset 
quality at a fraction of the cost of professional typesetting. 

When used with one of the many desktop publishing 
software packages, the LP 1000 produces laser-sharp origi- 
nals using a combination of both text and graphics. With all 
its features, the LP 1000 is designed to make printing possi- 
bilities almost unlimited. 

In addition to desktop publishing, the LP 1000 is com- 
patible with industry standard software packages al- 
lowing typeset quality printing of all types of 
computer-generated output including word proc- 
essing and spreadsheets. 

Portrait and landscape modes allow the han- 
dling of a \ariety of printing jobs. Users may select 
from the foui resident fonts and two downloada- 
ble custom software fonts. The resident fonts. Let- 
ter Gothic, Prestige Elite, Courier and Century 
PS, available in 10, 12 and 16.7 pitch, are 
selected from the front panel or via the 
software. Users may also select the 
graphics mode offering 300x300 
dots per inch on a full page. 

The LP 1000 operates quietly while 
handling jobs such as new sletters and bro- 
chures. Correspondence that once had to be 
contracted outside can now be conveniently pro- 
duced in the office at a rate of up to six pages per 
minute. In addition to its quiet operation, the LP 1000 is 
compact, requiring no more space than conventional 

The Tandy LP 1000 includes a controller board as a stan- 
dard feature, as well as 1 .5 megabytes of memory for full 
page graphics printing — a welcome alternative to high 
priced "extras." Included in this standard controller are 
emulations for Tandy, IBM Proprinter, IBM Wheelpi inter 
and the HP Laser Jet Plus. 


System Overviews 

Tandy 4000 

Microprocessor: Intel 80386 with 32-bit data path. 
Clock Speed: 16 MHz. Object code compatible with 

Operating System: Optional MS-DOS 3.2 with BASIC or 
XENIX System V. 

Memory: / megabyte RAM (expandable to 4 megabytes). 
Total sxstem expandable to 16 Mb using 1 -megabyte 

Keyboard: 101 -key enhanced keyboard. 
Disk Drive: 3 l k" floppy disk drive (1.4 megabytes). Three 
front drive slots. 

Display: Optional high-resolution non-glare, non- 
interlaced, 12" monochrome (green) or 14" color monitor 
(80 or 40 characters per line by 25 lines). 
Internal Expansion: Six AT and two XT slots. One dedi- 
cated 32-bit memory expansion slot. Optional 80287 math 
co-processor can be added. One XT-slot used for serial/ 
parallel adapter (included). 
External Connections: Standard serial and parallel ports. 

Tandy 1400 IT 

Microprocessor: NEC V-20 (8088 equivalent). 
Clock Speed: 7.16/4.77 MHz (switchable). 
Operating System: Includes MS-DOS/GW-BASIC 3.2. 
Memory: 768K RAM, 16K ROM. 640K accessible by 
MS-DOS, 128K available for RAM-based disk drive or 
print spooler. 

Keyboard: Full-size, 76 keys. 

LED Indicators: Caps Lock, Num Lock, Low Battery, 
Scroll Lock, Standby Mode. 

Display: Backlit 4t Supertwist" LCD, 640 x 200 pixels, 
80x25 characters, aspect ratio 1:1.4. Optional RGBI 
color monitor. 

Disk Drives: Two internal 720K 3 l k n double-sided, dou- 
ble density 

Modem: Optional 1200-baud, Hayes-compatible modem. 
External Connections: AC adapter, parallel printer, serial 
port, RGBI color monitor, composite video out, external 
disk drive, enhanced keyboard. 
AC Adapter: 15 VDC 700 mA, UL listed. 
Battery: Removable, rechargeable, 12 volt, 2200 mAh. Ex- 
tras available. 

Other Features: Battery-powered clock/calendar, standby 
mode and speaker. 
Dimensions: 14.5x12.4x3.5'! 
Weight: 13.5 lbs. 

Tandy 1000 TX 

Microprocessor: Intel 80286. 
Clock Speed: 8/4MHz, software selectable. 
Operating System: MS-DOS 3.2 with GW-BASIC. 
Memory: 640K RAM, expandable to 768K (640K for 
MS-DOS, 128K for video memory). Includes power- 
up diagnostics. 

Keyboard: Integral 90-key sculptured, including numeric- 
entry pad. 

Disk Drive: One double-sided, double-density 720K 
3*k" floppy. 

Video Modes: Text: 80 or 40 characters per line by 25 
lines, 256 character types. Graphics: CGA compatible 
with enhancements; 640 x 200 pixels, 4-color; 320x200, 

Internal Expansion: Five user-accessible IBM PC- 
compatible card slots (10" maximum length). 80287 
math co-processor. Second (3 l k" or 5 l U") disk drive. 
External Connections: Standard parallel adapter, compos- 
ite video out, line level audio out, RS-232 serial port, two 
joysticks, RGBI color monitor. 1 Ih" headphone jack with 
volume control. 

Tandy 1000 HX 

Microprocessor: Intel 8088-2. 
Clock Speed: 7.16/4.77 MHz, software selectable. 
Operating System: MS-DOS 2.11 with GW BASIC. 
Memory: 256K RAM, expandable to 640K. Includes 
128K ROM and 256 bits EEPROM with MS-DOS resi- 
dent, BIOS, diagnostics, system configuration and 
user interface. 

Keyboard: Integral 90-key sculptured, including numeric- 
entry keypad. 

Disk Drive: One double-sided, double-density 720K 
3 l k" floppy 

Video Modes: Text: 80 or 40 characters per line by 25 
Unes, 256 character types. Graphics: CGA compatible 
with enhancements; 640 x 200 pixels, 4-color, 320x200, 

Internal Expansion: One "PLUS" style expansion board 
or two "PLUS" style expansion boards when used with 
Memory PLUS Expansion Adapter (25-1062). Second 
3*/2" disk drive. 

External Connections: 5 l /t" 360K or 3*h" 720K external 
disk drive, standard parallel adapter, composite video out, 
RGBI color monitor, 1 /h" headphone jack with volume 
control, two joysticks. 

Tandy LP 1000 

Print Speed: 6 pages per minute. 

Internal RAM: 1.5 megabytes. 

Resolution: 300x300 dots per inch. Printable area 

max. 8" wide, 13 l k" long. Printable area at 300 dpi, 

8*kx 11" sheet. 

Paper Size: Letter, legal, half-letter, A4, A5, B5, 4-8 l k" 

wide and 8 5 /ie x 14" long. Paper tray holds 150 sheets 200 

bond max. 

Duty Cycle: 3000 sheets average per month. 

Interfaces: Video, Centronics parallel. 

Dimensions: 8 5 /ifiX 16*/igX 16"ftf? 

Weight: 37.5 lbs. 

Power: 120 VAC, 60 Hz. 

Emulations: Tandy, IBM ProPrinter, IBM WheelPrinter, 

HP LaserJet Plus. 




Creating computer applications in-house makes 
budgetary sense for a Pennsylvania PBS station* 

Public Broadcasting station WITF 
in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, is a prime 
example of how a small investment 
and a lot of imagination can make busi- 
ness more productive. In 1984, Stew- 
art Cheifet arrived from California to 
assume the position as President of 
WITF. In just over two and a half years, 
Cheifet's visionary ideas about com- 
puting have changed the way the sta- 
tion operates. From the outside, the 
changes might seem unnoticeable. 
From the inside, the employees agree, 
the changes at WITF are both substan- 
tial and permanent. 

"It has been a relatively modest in- 
vestment in software, and it's not a lot 
of fancy stuff;' said John Blair, WITF 
Senior Vice President and Station 
Manager. "It's Scripsit and a couple of 
other things that makes us able to do 
what we do. We've scarcely bought 
anything in terms of specialized pro- 
grams. It's all generic word process- 
ing, office management and 

Along with Cheifet came Mike 
Davidson to take on the position of 
Data Processing Manager. "Comput- 
ing was almost nonexistent when I ar- 
rived," Davidson remembered. "They 
had one laptop computer that the sta- 
tion manager used. At the last station 
where I worked, I used Tandy 6000 
computers. Many of the applications 
we use here were developed at that 
station. However, we have modified 
them to suit our particular needs." 


Davidson surveyed the situation at 
WITF and decided the radio station 

Supenising Engineer David Peters uses 
Tandy computers to control WITF's 
satellite up link, 

was the area to be computerized first. 
"The radio station is now the biggest 
computer user at WITF," Davidson 
said. "It is running on a Tandy 6000 
with five terminals. We added an addi- 
tional three-user card because we 
needed an easy way to have other peo- 
ple outside of the radio station connect 
to the 6000 with a modem." 

Scheduling solutions 

Computer applications at WITF are 
based on generic, multiuser software 
packages customized by Davidson. 
"We have two basic programs on the 
Tandy 6000, Scripsit 16 and FilePro 16 
Plus," Davidson said. "We use Scripsit 
to write press releases and to generate 
our program log, and FilePro for our 
databases." The program log details 
the music programming of the radio 
station for every block of time during 
the day and is used both internally and 
as copy for the station magazine. Ap- 
prise, which is distributed monthly to 
WITF's more than forty thousand sub- 
scribers. "To create the program log; 
we use a master week file with each 
day as a separate document," David- 
son explained. "Programming that 
stays the same week after week is en- 
tered into the master log; areas where 
programming changes are left blank. 
We copy a master Monday, for exam- 
ple, and make it a specific Monday 
with a date, and then fill in the blanks 
with programming. It used to take 
about an hour and a half to compile 
and type the log, now it takes about 
fifteen minutes." 

Of course, programming can't be 
entered into the log until it is sched- 
uled. The radio station programs fifty 
hours of music each week. Filling that 
time with music, once a monumental 

Communications Coordinator Brian Clark 
uses a Tandy KHH) to compile WITF's 
monthly magazine. 

task, has been simplified through the 
use of one of Davidson's database crea- 
tions. Before the Tandy 6000, the mu- 
sic director would type a play list for 
each day of the month. The station 
manager would also make a list of con- 
certs scheduled to be aired during the 
month that would preempt blocks of 
time normally programmed by the sta- 
tion. The lists would then be literally 
cut and pasted together to create a 
merged document for each day of the 
month. "It would take two or three 
days to cut and paste," Davidson said. 
"Then the sheets were taken to some- 
one in the communications depart- 
ment who would retype all the 
information, which was a total waste of 
time. It was taking nearly two weeks to 
get the music scheduled." 

Cue the computer 

Davidson developed applications 
for both the music director and the 
station manager that could later be 
merged into one document. When the 
music director wants to schedule a 
work of music the software first asks if 
a compact disc or a long playing album 
is being scheduled. "We've put our 
compact disc library in one database 
under FilePro. The albums haven't 
been entered into a database yet. 

There are about 30,000 of them and 
they're not used that much," Davidson 
explained. You can search by either a 
compact disc number, a composer, a 
specific work, or a holiday. All of that 
information was coded as it was put 
into the compact disc library." Once 
the selections are made, the computer 
checks to make sure a particular block 
hasn't been over programmed. "The 
selections have to end," Blair said. 
"Our listeners don't understand fad- 
ing out for the news." 

While the music director is schedul- 
ing music, the station manager, work- 
ing at another terminal, enters concert 
information into the computer using 
Scripsit. "I assemble all the program- 
ming for our schedule from their input 
and then do an export, which sends 
these files to an ASCII file which I 
then merge with my master guide list- 
ings," Davidson said. "I end up with a 
master ASCII file of the entire month 
for radio programming and then send 
that to our communications depart- 
ment's Tandy 1000 by a modem." 

Once received at the communica- 
tions department, the radio program 
log is proofed and edited. It is then 
transmitted to the in-house typesetter 
which is hard-wired to the Tandy 1000. 
"We are now transferring everything 
electronically" Davidson said. "It has 
cut probably a week and a half to two 
weeks off of the time it takes to put the 
program guide together." 

Going station-wide 

Another phase of computerization 
that is underway at WITF is in the 
television station. Staff members can 
now access the Tandy 6000 in the radio 
station on another floor through a 
Tandy 1000 connected to a phone mo- 
dem. "We designed a program rights 
database that keeps track of the pro- 
grams that the television station buys. 
We can generate reports listing when 

the station's rights start and expire and 
how many airings are allowed, plus 
keep track of when each program was 
aired. The television section is also 
changing over to do its program log the 
same way that radio does," Davidson 
said. "We're looking into getting the 
television station a hard-wire connec- 
tion to the 6000." 

The latest department to begin us- 
ing computers at WITF is the business 
office which just acquired two Tandy 
1000 SXs to handle their budget pro- 
jections which were previously done 
with pencil and paper. "Now we're 
looking at adding stations that are free 
standing, but connected. If we could 
get everything connected to the busi- 
ness office, we could expedite a lot of 

I). it. i Processing Manager Mike Davidson 
created the applications that brought 
WITF into the computer age. 

our accounting and project costing," 
Blair said. "These are things that eve- 
rybody wants, but we haven't devel- 
oped the applications yet. Given what 
we have been able to do with literally a 
very few thousand dollars, we will 
probably end up putting in our own 
system. We like the flexibility." 

The Sports \ftwork iwws center is un 
electronic switching yard for up-to-the- 
minute sports information. 

The world of sports is a Pennsylvania company's oyster and a multiuser computer its pearl. 

When an avid sports (an on the East 
coast wants to know the score of a 
college loot hall game in progress on 
the West coast, what is the best wax to 
find out? When a local television news 
program *s sports department needs fi- 
nal baseball scores for its late evening 
broadcast, to whom do they torn? 
More than ten million times last year, 
sports fans turned to Dial Sports for 
score information. And for an esti- 
mated 200 information providers, in- 
cluding broadcasters, sports bars and 
casinos. The Sports Network provided 
sports nexvs as quickly as it happened 
on the held, 


These two businesses are the two 
halves of Communicationsleam, Inc., 
a sports information firm in Hun- 
tingdon Valley, Pennsylvania. Each 
year, Dial Sports provides recorded 
phone messages to millions of fans in 
cities across the United States and 
Canada. The Sports Network is a 
sports information sen ice sold by sub- 
scription to iudix idiials and businesses 
who depend on having tin* most up-to- 
date spurts information available. 
Thanks to two Tandy 6000 computers, 
CommunicationsTeam is the team no 
one has been able to beat in the busi- 
ness of sports information services. 

Dial Sports, the creation of Mickey 
Charles, a Philadelphia area sports au- 
thority and radio personality was 
launched when Charles xvon a bid xvith 
the local Bell operating company to 
provide telephone sports information 
in the area. The company grew rapidly 
when it xvon a contract from AT&T to 
proxide a similar service on a nation- 
al scale. 

A better mousetrap 

When the company began provid- 
ing the Dial Sports services, it quickly 
became apparent that the syndicated 
sports nexvs sen ices being used could 

not provide the speed, versatility, or 
variety of information the company 
wanted to provide to its callers. The 
obvious solution was to form its own 
information gathering function. 
"Within a relatively short period of 
time, our own efforts at news gather- 
ing in sports were surpassing those of 
the existing services," said Bill Rohrer, 
The Sports Network's General Man- 
ager. "It was at that point that we 
started to think seriously about taking 
the information we were gathering for 
the phone services and sharing it with 

The decision to package and sell the 
company's sports news services 
prompted the creation of the compa- 
ny's second business venture — The 
Sports Network. 

CommunicationsTeam 's Mickey Charles. 

As CommunicationsTeam began 
building its own news gathering ser- 
vice, management realized an imme- 
diate need for a sophisticated 
computer system that would allow 
personnel to condense the dizzying 
amount of scores, statistics and news 
that make up a typical clay in the world 
of sports into a product that was in a 
format customers could easily use. 

"We realized that we needed a com- 
puter to help us, and we wanted a good 
computer, but not one of those won- 
derful \veYc-going-to-attack-Mars-in- 
the-morning' type things," Charles 
laughed. "When we purchased the 
computers, our original intent was 
simply to feed our information around 
the country, not for the phone service 
but for the wire service. Once we had 
the computers, we started to add ter- 
minals and now we use computers eve- 
n-where. Everyone in the office has a 
terminal on his desk and inputs to the 
computer. Without the computer, we 
would lie very lost." 

"We found a consultant in our area 
who specialized in programming for 
Tandy equipment and who knew the 
6000s intimately," Rohrer said. "Con- 
sidering the flexibility and capacity the 
Tandy 6000 offered, it seemed to be 
the best buy in the marketplace. We 
had to buy two computers because we 
needed a fully redundant system. We 
cannot afford to be out of business for 
anything longer than minutes." 

The programs that drive The Sports 
Network and the score tracking sys- 
tem are complex in design but are also 
easy to use. Menus guide a scoreboard 
operator through the process of mak- 
ing scoring updates and code numbers 
assigned to teams allow for changes to 
be made with minimal keystrokes. 
Since many sporting seasons overlap, 
scoreboard operators may be covering 
basketball, hockey and baseball on the 
same day. "We have covered over 200 
games in a single day," Rohrer said. 
"The multiuser environment is obvi- 
ously very important to us." 

Built for speed 
To CommunicationsTeam, one of 

the most important aspects of covering 
sports is delivering scoring updates 
quickly. "The system is designed so 
that it is literally possible for us to have 
a touchdown in the NFL transmitted 
over our network to our customers 
within ten seconds or sooner of the 
event occurring on the field," ex- 
plained Rohrer. "Generally, for most 
events in sports, we sav that if what 
happens on the field is not delivered 
within a minute of the action occur- 
ring, considering all the activity we 
encounter on a Saturday in September, 
something has broken down in the sys- 
tem. At most times, average time be- 
tween the event and transmission is 
somewhere between thirty and forty 
seconds; it has to be that fast." 

To get scoring updates at the speed 
the company and its customers de- 
mand, CommunicationsTeam uses 
three methods of news gathering. One 
method posts stringers in the press 
boxes at games with a direct phone 
line to the company's scoreboard oper- 
ator. The stringer calls the operator as 
soon as there is a change in scoring. 

In addition to stringers, the com- 
pany is now utilizing four satellite 
dishes to follow games electronically. 
The dishes feed twenty- five TV sets set 
up in the news center. "We monitor as 
many games ourselves as we can, be- 
cause it's quicker than using string- 
ers," Rohrer said. "Anything that we 

Terminals connected to the Tandy 600() 
allow multiple operators to send out 
scoring updates. 

can do to pare down seconds in the 
reporting of events is to our competi- 
tive advantage." 

The third method is to call out by 
phone to the sporting event. Score- 
board operators have the courtside 
phone numbers for every game being 
played even where. If a game is not on 
television, a stringer has not been as- 
signed, or technical difficulties make 
other communication impossible, 
scoreboard operators can call court- 
side periodically for scoring updates. 

As the largest user of The Sports 
Network's services. The Dial Sports 
services immediately know of any 
news breaks or scoring changes. The 
service is subdivided by city, and the 
report is custom tailored for each city. 
"The service in a particular city will be 
updated as frequently as every five 
minutes or even faster depending on 
the flow of events," Rohrer explained. 
"If the person who is responsible for 
the service in a particular city has just 
given a report and an important final 
comes in, that operator can put that 
update on the phone service right 
away; within the same period of sec- 
onds that The Sports Network can 
transmit it." 

In closing, Charles explained the 
success and rapid growth of Com- 
municationsTeam very simply. "We 
know what the public wants," he ex- 
plained with a smile. "Consequently, 
we have set the pace. We are in more 
cities with sports than anyone else be- 
cause we do our homework and we 
know the market" 


Big success on a 

Computers help to make a California securities brokerage efficient 



California's Silicon Valley, a small 
area wedged between San Francisco 
and San Jose, received its distinctive 
name because of the role the area has 
played in the computer industry. Not 
every business in the area was built 
around the silicon chip, however. 
Some enterprises have adopted com- 
puter technology as a refinement for 
types of businesses that existed long 
before the computer revolution. 

One such company is Foothill Secu- 
rities, Inc. of Los Altos, California. 
Founded in 1962, Foothill Securities, 
through its main office in Los Altos 
and sixteen branch offices in Northern 
California, has grown into a large inde- 
pendent company whose sales in 1986 
exceeded $31 million. 

Investment securities brokerages 
are nothing new to this area. However, 
according to Owner and President Rex 
Gardiner, the computer technology 
employed at his firm has been instru- 
mental in bringing the company to its 
successful status. "We envision a very 
bright future," he smiled. 

is a tight 352 square feet. Packed 
within these four walls are the firm's 
four employees — two full-time and 
two part-time — and their five comput- 
ers. "Everybody says I've got to get 
more space," exclaimed Gardiner. 
"What I say is, we're going to get an- 
other computer, we're going to be 
more efficient and we're going to stay 
within this space." 

Storage and beyond 

Gardiner has been fascinated with 
microcomputers since their introduc- 
tion and understandably so. The bro- 
kerage business, of necessity, carries 
with it veritable mounds of paperwork. 
In addition to essential client informa- 
tion, data regarding transactions, pay- 
roll and commissions, and investment 
product types requires meticulous re- 
cord keeping. 

Perhaps what is most amazing about 
Foothill Securities' success is the small 
scale on which such a large enterprise 
operates. The company headquarters 

Thus, Gardiner welcomes the con- 
cept of microcomputers in his business. 
"At first, they said you could run a 
business on 4K of memory. Then they 
said it would take 16K, and then 32K, 
which turned out to be true," Gardiner 
said. "I was more concerned with stor- 
age. When they came out with a com- 
puter with two disk drives, 1 decided it 
was time to move. We bought a Radio 
Shack Model III with 32K and ran our 
general ledger and our database. 
When the Model 4 came out, we con- 
verted to it because it could do things 
the Model III couldn't. 

"When we finally came to the point 
where we were going to upgrade from 

TRS-DOS to MS-DOS, we weren't 
sure what we were going to do. At that 
point we debated again: IBM, or Com- 
paq, or Tandy," said Rex Gardiner's 
son, Steve, who has created all of the 
company's computer applications. 

"We looked over all the options, and 
debated it, and decided to stick with 
Tandy. Good products, good service, 
good support, and good prices. We 
bought three Tandy 3000s. One has a 
35-meg hard disk in it and a co- 
processor and is running XENIX. The 
other two 3000s each have a 20- 
megabyte hard disk." 

Multiuser databases 

To keep track of business and pro- 
mote productivity, Steve Gardiner has 
developed three databases. The trans- 
action blotter is a database that was set 
up to keep track of the company's 
transactions in compliance with Secu- 
rities and Exchange Commission regu- 
lations. When a representative makes 
a sale, the order is written on a four- 
part sales ticket, one part of which is 
sent to the company office. 

"This ticket is the heart of our sys- 
tem," Gardiner explained. The sales 
ticket contains all the necessary infor- 
mation on the investment, the investor 
and the representative to feed the data 
needs of the blotter. Once the informa- 
tion from the sales ticket is in the data- 
base, it can be accessed using any of 
the inputs (ticket number, investor, 
etc.) as a reference point. 

When a sale is made by one of the 
representatives, the company is auto- 
matically paid its commission by the 
investment underwriter. "When the 
commission check comes in, it is ac- 
companied by a statement indicating 
the representative, the amount of the 
commission, and the investor," ex- 
plained Steve. "We find the transac- 
tion that matches the commission 
being paid and then go into the data- 
base and mark the ticket paid on that 
date and the amount of the commis- 
sion. The check is then entered and 
the two should balance out to zero." 


and profitable. 

To further increase efficiency, the 
transaction blotter has been combined 
with the incoming commission checks 
enabling the company to run payroll 
on the computer. The information 
from the commissions are fed into a 
spreadsheet which calculates each 

representative's commission, their 
manager's override commission and a 
variety of other calculations including 
a statement showing the orders for 
which they are being paid and any 
backlogged orders. "Our databases do 
a lot more than calculate payroll," Gar- 
diner said. 

Another part of the payroll program 
makes a printout for each branch man- 
ager of all orders for the week sorted 
by representative, plus all orders 
pending. The transaction database is 
also used to print quarterly and annual 
statements for each representative 

listing their production sorted by cus- 
tomer, investment and commission 
amount. "These quarterly and annual 
statements are interesting to the rep- 
resentatives because they find that a 
high percentage of their commission 
comes from just a few people," Gar- 
diner said. "We have the data coded in 
so many ways that we can print it out 
any way we want." 

To keep track of the company's 
many product offerings, another data- 
base was developed which lists invest- 
ment products approved by the 
company for sale by representatives. 
"The hardest part of our whole busi- 
ness, harder than keeping track of 
commissions or representatives, is 
keeping track of the investment pro- 
grams that we have cleared and ap- 
proved for sale," Gardiner explained. 
After trying several methods over the 
years to keep track of products, Gar- 
diner decided to enter everything re- 
garding any investment program into 
one database. From the product data- 
base, which is updated daily, a product 
printout is created and distributed to 
representatives monthly. 

A third database keeps track of the 
company's more than 60 registered 
representatives. This database allows 
for storage and easy retrieval of perti- 
nent employee information such as 
employment date, what licenses each 
representative holds, company code 
number, and personal information 
such as address and phone number. 

Data by phone 

Plans are underway to create yet 
another database that will be used as 
an electronic bulletin board and for 
electronic mail between the branches 
and the home office. In addition, the 
branches will be able to access the in- 
house databases. This will be the com- 
pany's second attempt at an on-line 
information system. 

"We started using a bulletin board 
system for our managers that would 

allow them to call up and see our cur- 
rent product listings. We tied the com- 
puter into an 800 phone line," said 
Steve. "We couldn't get the data on 
line efficiently with that computer," 
Gardiner added. "On a network sys- 
tem, information has to have time 
value. If it's out of date it doesn't do 
you any good." Foothill plans to pur- 
chase another Tandy 3000 that will be 
dedicated to the task of operating the 
bulletin board system. "With the new 
computer, the bulletin board will be 
easy to maintain," Steve said. 

It would be safe to say Foothill Secu- 
rities is dependent on its computer 
system. "There's no way we could 
have handled the volume we do now 
without computers," exclaimed Gar- 
diner. "We've had examiners tell us we 
have the most efficient operation 
they've seen. One of them asked me 
how much more volume we could do. I 
don't see any reason why we couldn't 
do double what we do right now with- 
out doing much more work." 

"Basically, our long term goal is to 
be the lowest net cost producer in the 
industry," emphasized Gardiner. "Our 
computers, and our plans for them, 
will undoubtedly help us realize that 


Radio Shack and education: 

When microcomputers made their debut in 
classrooms in the late 1970's, a hue and cry re- 
sounded throughout the educational community 
proclaiming that the devices were the harbin- 
gers of an Ocwellian future with the education of 
America's youth controlled by machines instead 
of people. Far from this prophecy, in classrooms 
today, the microcomputer has been accepted as 
mere!) another learning tool, albeit a very pow- 
erful one. 

In just a few short years, microcomputers ha\e 
found their way into a high percentage of Ameri- 
ca's over 100.0(H) primary and secondary schools 
as well as its 3,300 colleges and universities. 
According to Dataquest Inc., a research firm 
based in San Jose, California, of public schools in 
1985, an estimated 75.88 percent of primary 
schools, 89.93 percent of secondary schools, and 
71.42 percent of colleges and universities were 
using personal computers. It is projected that by 
1990, the penetration will be 99 percent at all 
levels of education. In terms of expenditures and 
size, the education market represents one of the 
nation's largest industries with a vast potential 
for microcomputers. 

The success of microcomputers in the class- 
room is predicated on a number of factors, not 
the least of which is their popularity in the busi- 
ness world. Parents, teachers and administrators 
reason that students must be computer literate 
to compete for future employment. The integra- 
tion of computer literacy into the curriculum 
lends itself to real work situations for students 
and increased productivity throughout the 
learning process. 

Demands of the marketplace 

The proliferation of computer usage in educa- 
tion, however, has proved to be something of an 
accomplishment. Due to unique circumstance*, 
the educational marketplace requires special at- 
tention on the part of those who would sell their 
wares to schools. 


Realizing these special requirements. Radio 
Shack established an Education Division in 1980 
to address the needs of educators. Today, Radio 
Shack is recognized as one of the "Big Four** 
microcomputer manufacturers prominent in the 
educational community along with Apple, Com- 
modore and IBM. 

The achievement of this status for Radio Shack 
is a result of the company's dedication to servic- 
ing the needs of the education field in general, 
not just acting as a retailer of computers. To 
accommodate schools in their computerization 
efforts. Radio Shack implemented a variety of 
programs designed for the educational environ- 
ment. In addition to forming a nationwide sales 
force of educational specialists and coordinators 
who understand the particular requirements of 
educational institutions, Radio Shack initiated 
special pricing structures and procurement ar- 
rangements for schools. 

In 1981, Radio Shack began a program which 
ofTers free computer literacy training to educa- 
tors to help them become familiar with comput- 
ers. By 1983, over 400,000 teachers had 
completed this training. That same year, Tandy 
Corporation's President, Chairman and CEO 
John V. Roach was recognized by then Secretary 
of Education Terrel H. Bell for Radio Shack's 
significant contribution to computer literacy 
through the teacher training program. 

Another important program initiated by 
Tandy Corporation/Radio Shack in support of the 
educational community is the Tandy Educa- 
tional Grants Program. Established in 1983, the 
grants program is designed to promote research 
and development activ ities regarding microcom- 
puters in an educational environment. Grants 
submissions are evaluated by an independent 
review board. Educational institutions selected 
for grants receive Tandy computer equipment. 
Since its inception, over 1.2 million dollars in 
computer equipment have been awarded to 

Computers and commitments 

schools through the Tandy Educational Grants 

In 1984, in its effort to further promote educa- 
tional computing, Tandy Corporation joined 
forces with the University of Texas at Austin 
College of Education to sponsor the Conference 
on Technology and Education. Held each spring, 
the conference is attended by educators at all 
levels and features presentations on timely top- 
ics by leaders in the educational field. Since its 
debut, the conference has taken on international 
proportions and has been joined in sponsorship 
by prestigious educational institutions that in- 
clude the University of Edinburgh (Scotland) 
Department of Artificial Intelligence; the Uni- 
versity of Tennessee Department of Interna- 
tional Studies; the University of Southern 
California; and the Association for Educational 
Data Systems (AEDS). 

Seeking software solutions 

While microcomputers were initially utilized 
in the classroom to teach basic programming 
skills, they are now being used in nearly every 
curriculum area from reading and language skills 
to business classes. While a variety of software is 
available, schools often desire software tailored 
to coincide with other curricula media. In an 
effort to help provide this type of software, Radio 
Shack actively supports over 100 educational 
software publishing companies in their develop- 
ment efforts. This support is highlighted by an 
annual Publishers' Workshop hosted by Radio 
Shack where publisher representatives attend 
seminars, receive computer product briefings 
and hear presentations from Tandy Corporation/ 
Radio Shack management. 

Technology for Teaching 

Radio Shack has long been a leader in com- 
puter technology in general and specifically in 

the educational arena. In 1979, the company 
introduced the first low-cost network svstem 

designed specifically for classroom use. This sys- 
tem, the Network 1, and its successors, the Net- 
works 2, 3, and 4, represent Radio Shack's 
dedication to the education community through 
constant product development and enhance- 
ment to meet the increasing computer needs of 
school systems. These network products have 
enabled schools to share information and learn- 
ing resources through special software versions 
developed for Radio Shack's microcomputers, 
notably the Models 1, III, 4, Color Computer 
and, most recently, the Tandy 1000 family. 

The commitment continues 

Radio Shack continues its commitment to the 
advancement of technology in education with a 
variety of innovative school-oriented computer 
products. One such innovation is the Trackstar 
128 Apple emulation board from Diamond Com- 
puter Systems, Inc. Trackstar is designed to al- 
low schools to run most Apple microcomputer 
software on the Tandy 1000 SX, in addition to 
DOS software developed for PC-compatibles. 
This gives school administrators a wider choice 
of software than is available using just Apples or 

According to William D. Gattis, Vice Presi- 
dent of Radio Shack's Education Division, ex- 
ploring software applications will soon be the 
central focus of educational computing. "The 
hardware is the means to an end. We are very 
competitive with our product line. Our concern 
for quality software for the educational environ- 
ment is reflected in our support of educational 
publishers and relationships with ofher educa- 
tional vendors. It is an important focus for us." 

It has been the philosophy of Tandy Corpora- 
tion to meet the needs of computer users with 
the technology and support necessary to turn 
complex problems into sensible solutions. 
Through its commitment to education, Tandy 
Corporation/Radio Shack has made a commit- 
ment to the future. 


Computer educat 

Bringing a school system into 
the Information Age requires 
foresight, funding and plain 
old determination. 

'Hie pastoral piney woods indig- 
enous to Gaston Count), North 
Carolina, provide a picturesque fa- 
cade for an area teeming with the 
activity that accompanies an up- 
surge in its economy and, subse- 
quently, its population. 

The answer is a resounding yes. 
In fact, Gaston County oflers one 
of the most innovative programs in 
the country, Gaston County also 

has the distinction of being the 
first school district in the nation to 
install Radio Shacks MS-DOS ver- 
sion of the Network 4 Shared 
Learning System. 

Located west of Charlotte, Cas- 
ton County is the fifth largest 

As public information coordina- 
tor for Gaston County Public 
Schools, Bonnie Rcidy fields a va- 
riety of questions from families re- 
locating to the area. Invariably, 
questions concerning opportuni- 
ties for students and computer ed- 
ucation arise. "It's one of the top 
five questions I get from families 
moving into this area. 'Do you of- 
fer computer education? "" 

school district in North Carolina 
with approximately 32, (KM) stu- 
dents in 55 schools. Establishing a 
quality computer education pro- 
gram required tremendous sup- 
port from the state, county board 
of education, administration, fac- 
ulty and citizens of the count). 

Historical sparks 

One individual, in particular, is 
credited with generating student 

interest and giving the Gaston 
County program direction. David 
Shellman, a chemistry teacher and 
self-taught computer enthusiast, 
had one free class period to teach 
programming on a TRS-SO Model 
I computer. Unlike a formal class, 
participating students chose to 
stay at school instead of heading 
home at the end of the day. Shell- 
man had soon sparked enough in- 
terest to have three full classes at 
North Gaston Senior High School. 
The rest, as they say, is history. 

Demand for the class grew rap- 
idly. Then in 1983, the Gaston 
County Board of Education ac- 
cepted the challenge to imple- 
ment computer education on a 
system-wide basis. Computer advi- 
sory and curriculum committees 
were formed. Shellman was subse- 
quently promoted to computer co- 
ordinator for the school district. 

Using local funding, the board 
of education instituted a plan to 
install stand-alone computers in 
the schools. Familiar with Radio 
Shack computers, Shellman rec- 
ommended installing TRS-80 
Model III and Model 4 personal 
computers in seven high schools. 
Some would be linked together by 
Radio Shack's Network 3 Shared 
Learning System so students could 
share hardware and software. Of 
equal importance, teachers could 
control instruction. 

At about the same time, the 
state legislature allocated three 
years of funding to support com- 
puter education in all public 
schools. For Gaston County, the 
funds provided a ratio of tine com- 
puter per 50 students in grades K- 
12 and approximately 30 cents per 
student for software. 

Hv the end of the three-year 
funding, technology had changed. 


ion with a cause. 

Computers with the MS-DOS op- 
erating system became known as 
the industry standard. Sheliman 
and the Gaston County decision- 
makers took notice, along with 
many other educators. 

"We anticipated something new 
from Radio Shack for the Tandy 
1000 and we wanted to he in an 
MS-DOS environment," explained 
Sheliman. "We felt our students 
would have a better advantage 
graduating in that environment." 

In fact. Radio Shack was on the 
verge of announcing the MS-DOS 
version of the Network 4 Shared 
Learning System. 

The floating ground 

The first lab was installed in 
February 1986 at Ashbrook Senior 
High School by Radio Shack per- 
sonnel. All systems were "CO" ex- 
cept for an erratic problem that 
became more frustrating with 
each passing day. A team of Radio 
Shack educational representatives, 
technicians and county electri- 
cians worked day and night, plus 
weekends, to find the solution. 

"It was May before we figured 
out what was wrong. We had 

changed everything. Radio Shack 
backed it all," explained Sheliman. 
"As it turned out, the problem was 
in our electrical wiring. The cul- 
prit was an ice machine with a 
floating ground wire." 

The school district dropped 
their original computer concept in 
favor of installing MS-DOS Net- 
work 4 labs in the remainder of 
their senior high schools. By this 
time, state funds were almost 
drained. The board was asked to 
allocate additional local funds to 
support the Network 4 decision. 
The board and citizens of Caston 
County came through once again 
with more than $180,000. 

"We felt like this was the net- 
work we were looking for. We 
could have gone with a business 
environment network but we were 
looking for isolation and priv acv so 
students couldn't copy each oth- 
er's files," said Sheliman. 

"Obviously, we looked at other 
systems but they were just too ex- 
pensive. I turned to Radio Shack 
because I had had good experi- 
ences with them." 

Today, every senior high school 
in Caston County has at least one 
Network 4 lab equipped with 20 
Tandy 1000 student stations, a 
hard drive host computer and a 
printer. The Network 3 Systems 
and Model Ills and 4s have been 
moved into the junior high schools 
to meet the state mandate of com- 
puter literacy by the eighth grade. 

Sheliman is especially pleased 
with the availability of software 
compatible with the MS-DOS Net- 
work 4 System and the control 
networking gives the teacher. 

The curriculum, though not re- 
quired, is a mixture of BASIC and 
PASCAL programming with a 
strong emphasis on applications. 

"We feel in the future that this 
is the direction to go. Program- 
ming itself will be de-emphasized 
in computer-aided instruction. We 
really see more application pro- 
grams, like using computers in 
mathematics and science, becom- 
ing more popular." 

The use of Tandy computers in 
Caston County Public Schools 
goes far beyond networked labs. 
For example, computer-aided de- 
sign is being taught in high school 
drafting classes with the Tandy 
2000 and Model 4s are incorpo- 
rated in special education and 
speech classes. 

A combination of Tandy 100(K, 
1200s and 3000s is being utilized 
in administration and in teacher 
training. The Gaston County Pub- 
lic Schools Administration Build- 
ing has been equipped with a 
Tandy/3Coni Network System. 

Additionally, local school facili- 
ties are often used for adult com- 
puter education courses. 

"There's no doubt our strength- 
ened computer education program 
has been a strong selling point for 
our community's economic devel- 
opment," concluded Reidy. 


The changing library: 

From card files 

to CD-ROM 


Robert Burr poses alongside the Crosby 
Library 's namesake. 



i-r-L 1 


mw ■* * mm gjyw & 

■- 1 — - — 

Far from replacing books, that libraries must have in order to 
computers help a university keep running smoothly, 
library keep up with its bookish "Libraries are information-rich op- 
functions* erations," explained Robert Burr, the 

Crosby Library's Director. "In a li- 
The library has long been the focal brary, you are literally surrounded by 
point for academic activity on college all kinds of information, and there's 
campuses as students and faculty alike always the need to organize and re- 
browse the myriad shelves of books trieve that information. It's not only a 
and periodicals seeking information. matter of cataloging and finding books 
As microcomputers usher in the Age of or periodicals. We also have an admin- 
Information on today's campuses, tra- istrative office that has personnel re- 
ditional library functions are being cords, accounting records and almost 
updated using current technology anything else you'd find in any normal 
concepts. The Crosby Library at Gon- business application." 
zaga University in Spokane, Washing- Like many S|na ]| businesses, the li- 
ton is no exception. Named for Bing brarv has Umited Bnaocial and per- 
Crosby, Gonzaga's most famous alum- sonnel resources . According to Burr, 
nus, the Crosby Library has entered the compu ter system has increased 
| the Information Age with a Tandy lhe e ffj c j ency f the library's opera, 
. computer system. Hons « We send i etters to d onors ac . 

As libraries must process huge knowledging the more than 5,000 
amounts of data, it is obviously impor- books we receive as donations each 
tant for them to keep track of the vast year," Burr noted. "Writing that many 
number of books, magazines and jour- letters on a typewriter is enough work 
-* nals in circulation. Not so obvious, but for a full-time employee. With the 
just as important, are the administra- computer, most of these can be han- 
tive records, financial and otherwise, died by a form letter." 

From the beginning, Tandy comput- 
ers have been the computers of choice 
at Gonzaga's Crosby Library. Burr re- 
called, "Our first computer was a 
Radio Shack TRS-80 Model III. I was 
writing a few articles, and became in- 
terested in a word processor. When we 
saw how much easier a computer 
could make writing, we immediately 
became interested in automating 
more of our functions." 

Now, the library has an entire fleet 
of Tandy computers, including a Tandy 
3000 HD, two 1000 HDs, two 1200 
HDs, fixe Model Ills, a Model 4 and a 
Model 100. Serving the computers is a 
sophisticated array of dot-mat riv and 
daisy-wheel printers, along with mo- 
dems in various configurations. 

Paper replacement 

( Computers have touched — in fact, 
revolutionized — almost every area of 
the Crosby Library's operations. One 
application that has been a boon to 
operations is a simple one: word proc- 
essing. Virtually all tevt processing in 
the library is performed on Tandy com- 
puters using either SuperScripsit, Mi- 
crosoft Word 3.0 or WordPerfect 4.1. 
Burr remarked, "As a result, diskettes 
ha\e replaced paper as the primary 
medium for interoffice communica- 
tion." Draft policies or reports which 
require staff critique and revision are 
routinely circulated on diskette rather 
than paper. "This has drastically re- 
duced our paper files — which is im- 
portant in a building like ours, where 
space is at a premium." 

Another application that has revolu- 
tionized the library's operations is da- 
tabase management, using pfs:file, 
dBASE HI Plus and Reflex software. 
"The periodicals/serials list is an excel- 
lent example of the new possibilities 
microcomputers have created for us," 
Burr said. 

As periodicals are usually relevant 
to more than one field of study, the 
search/sort capabilities of database 
management programs make it easy to 
generate subject-specific lists on de- 
mand for library users. Additionally, 
management can retrieve a variety of 
information such as cost data for sup- 
porting particular programs, titles re- 
ceived from specific vendors and 
expenditures made against various 
budget lines. Historical cost analysis 
by title, vendor and subject area is now 
available in minutes, whereas before it 
would have required literally weeks of 
manual effort to produce. "We are also 
able to produce overdue book notices 

Students Melissa Mu/.utko mid Philip Honum 
from one of the library S computers. 

using database management software, 
and the work that would normally take 
days to accomplish is finished in a few- 
hours," Burr commented. 

"There are also a number of new 
software applications which we plan to 
introduce over the next one to three 
years," Burr continued. "One area that 
we are especially excited about is (ID- 
ROM technology. Many of the on-line 
databases accessed by the library are 
becoming available on compact disk, 
which can be searched locally at a 
greatly reduced cost. The C ID format is 
also being used by publishers as an 
alternative to paper and microfiles." 

•♦•.database programs 

make it easy to generate 

lists on demand for 

library users* 

Other future applications include 
desktop publishing, statistical analysis 
to better support faculty research, and 
project management to help plan and 
execute special projects with interac- 
tive variables of people and equip- 
ment. Said Burr, "We're also 
interested in presentation graphics, 
which we could use to prepare instruc- 
tional materials as well as for enhanced 
administrative support. We're also 

reference information in the database 

looking into a network system that 
would link all of our computers to- 
gether to make our operations more 

One story Mr Burr likes to tell about 
the library's conversion to computers 
concerns his former secretary; Mrs. 
Ruth Seelhammer. "Mrs. Seelhammer 
is a very dear lady, but not one you 
would think of as being high-tech ori- 
ented. She had planned to retire in a 
couple of years, but we made the deci- 
sion to go ahead and put a Model III on 
her desk anyway," Burr said. "The day 
the machine was set up and her type- 
writer moved to the other side of the 
room, she was so upset that she went 
home with a migraine!" But Mrs. 
Seelhammer soon changed her mind 
about using computers. "Within a 
couple of months, she told me she 
didn't know how she'd ever gotten 
along without it." 

After retiring from her post as Ad- 
ministrative Secretary, Mrs. Seelham- 
mer became the curator of a rare book 
collection at the Crosby library. 
"When she left, she took her Model III 
with her," Burr remarked. "She's still 
using it, too, and very happily." 

Budgetary benefits 

The library utilizes the "what if ca- 
pabilities of VisiCalc and SupcrCalc 3 
spreadsheet software to calculate 
budget proposals with automatic ad- 
justments for projected cost increases. 
"The relationship among expenditure 
lines in the library is very complex," 


Burr explained. "Any increase in funds 
for book purchases requires a propor- 
tionate increase in several other cate- 
gories. With spreadsheets, we are able 
to test alternatives quickly and easily." 

The graphics capabilities of Super- 
Calc 3 have been useful in supporting 
the library's budget requests. Said 
Burr, "Our experience has shown that 
a line or bar graph showing compara- 
tive rates of book cost escalation and 
budget increases over a five-year per- 
iod is far more persuasive in justifying 
a fundi ng request than a simple recita- 
tion of the numbers.** 

Microcomputer telecommunica- 
tions have brought about some radical 
changes for the Crosby Library. Most 
of the traditional paper indexing and 
abstracting tools which libraries have 
relied upon to locate information are 

communication is the 
norm rather than the 


now accessible on-line via microcom- 
puter. Tandy computers are used daily 
to search on-line databases in response 
to user requests, effectively providing 
an entirely new library service. 

Administrative use of telecommuni- 
cations has also been significant. Ac- 
cording to Burr, Tandy computers have 
yielded important savings of staff time 
on a variety of projects requiring data 
input to the university mainframe 
computer or other mainframes. The 
majority of new book orders are now 
placed with publishers and distribu- 
tors by electronic mail, with increased 
speed, lower overall cost, and greater 

"Electronic communication with 
other libraries, especially the sending 
and receipt of interlibrarv loan re- 
quests, is now the norm rather than 
the exception," said Burr, "1 also rely 
on electronic mail to keep in touch 
with the office during business travel 
and, quite frequently, to send work 
done at home back to the office on 
evenings or weekends" 

Future functions 

"We have achieved tremendous 
gains in productivity," Burr said. "But 
we're not stopping yet. There are still 
main library functions which continue 
to be performed manually that we 
could automate in the future." 



Computers bring the library 
to a Canadian reservation 


\ -M ' 


I'lH^i, rllt 










t L 




Computers are opening new 
frontiers for ConzUga University 
and a group of Native American In- 
dian students isolated in the moun- 
tains of Canada. The school, in 
conjunction with the Canim Lake 
Indian Band, has begun an Exten- 
sion Undergraduate Degree Pro- 
gram that serves the Indians' 
reservation almost TOO miles away 
in the province of British Columbia. 

Students in the program are able 
to work for a bachelor's degree in 
Native American Leadership. The 
primary areas of study are educa- 
tion and business management — 
areas that the Indians feel will help 
them improve from within. 

What* s unique about this first-of- 
its-kind program is that the stu- 
dents are able to complete the 
degree program while staving at 
their reserve — they only have to 
travel to the university for six weeks 
each summer. Acknowledged Burr, 
"The band members prefer to re- 
main on the reserve and contribute 
within their own culture. Also, the 
mountainous terrain and hard win- 
ters in the Pacific Northwest can 
make travel almost impossible. 
With computers, we have been able 
to overcome those barriers." 

Using a Tandy 3000 computer 
with an external CD-ROM drive, 
students are able to access the 
Crosby Library's entire catalog. 
The students request study materi- 
als from the catalog via electronic 
mail, and the library sends the ma- 
terials either by mail oi; via facsimile 
equipment. Students also use the 
computer as a word processor, and 
send assignments to the library for 
their instructors to review. 

The Extension Undergraduate 
Degree Program may be a model 
for similar programs in the future. 
Said Burr, "The Canadian govern- 
ment and the reserve are extremely 
interested in the program's poten- 
tial. It is a highly innovative pro- 
gram, and we are excited about its 
prospects for success" 


• 1 I I I 

4 n ■ i m 

Tradition dictates that during college football games, 
halftime is the domain of the marching band. Whether 
the band is spelling out the school name or interlocking 
two rotating circles, hours have been spent in detailed 
planning to create the band formation. How many 
hours are spent creating formations depends on the 
method used. Directors of the University of Florida 
Gator Band in Gainesville, Florida, have found that by 
using a Tandy 1000 computer to design marching 
formations, the once laborious task is sim- 
plified and the time required reduced. 

The execution of a formation is bro- 
ken down into intervals, steps that each 
member must make individually in or- 
der for the band as a whole to "fall into 
formation" at the exact same mo- 
ment. At each interval, deter- 
mined by counts in the music, a 
band member must progress from 
one designated position on the 
field to the next. Since the crea- 
tion of a formation might take as 
many as eight intervals to com- 
plete, and a half time show might 
consist of as many as eight forma- 
tions, it's easy to understand why 
a band director would appreciate 
a short cut to making charts 
for up to sixty-four intervals. 

Bruce Ammann, assis- 
tant director for the Gator 
Band, creates and maps out 
formations on a Tandy 1000 
using Music Education In- 
centives software. "The com- 
puter speeds up the process of 
creating formations," Ammann 
reported. "If I do a formation by 
hand, I sketch a design, then I 
take that design and put down dots for each band 
member. In order for a formation to work, those dots 
have to be in the right spot, at exactly the right interval." 

When Ammann creates formations on the computer, 
he has room, and time, for experimentation. "The com- 
puter creates a design; if I like it, the computer puts the 
design exactly where I want it on the field." Once a 
design has been selected, Ammann can then begin 
assigning band members to the design. When the de- 
sign is filled, Ammann begins the process again by 
adding a complementary design into the larger forma- 
tion until all band members are on the field. Once all of 
the smaller designs are incorporated into the larger 

formation, an animation phase can be initiated for an 
on-screen simulation of Ijow the formation will look in 

When satisfied with the way a formation works, Am- 
mann prints a set of charts that are used as a guide for 
band members. The finished product looks like a foot- 
ball field with dots indicating the position of band 
members. Each dot pin-points a band member's posi- 
tion on the field at a specific interval of a formation. "If I 
have three intervals in a formation" explained 
Ammann, "one interval is the beginning, one is 
eight counts later, and the other is eight counts 
after that. The band members go out on the 
field and stand where their dot is on the first 
chart, then they turn to the second chart and 
move to their dot on that chart." 

The program itself contains more than a 
hundred designs that can be used 
to create formations. To further 
expand the system's utility, 
Ammann purchased a Tandy 
GT-2000 Graphics Tablet 
that allows him to supple- 
ment the designs standard 
with the software. "The de- 
vice allows us to take a march- 
ing chart from another 
marching band or a design that 
I draw on a piece of paper and 
digitize the formation into the 
computer" Ammann explained. 
"Tin not limited to just the shapes 
included in the program." 

Before purchasing their Tandy 1000, 
the Gator Band already owned a Radio Shack- 
Model 4 computer which they used for book- 
keeping, storing alumni and band member 
addresses and maintaining an inventor) of 
the music library and band uniforms. "The 
software vendor for the marching band program recom- 
mended the Tandy 1000 as the computer on which their 
software ran best," Ammann said. "After our good expe- 
rience with the Model 4, we were happy to stay with 
Tandy computers" 

Since computerizing, Ammann has found that the 
band's formation possibilities may not have increased 
considerably; he can draw any design by hand the 
computer can generate. What is important from his 
point of view is the time he saves. Since creating forma- 
tions is only one of Ammann's duties, finding a method 
that allows the task to be completed as satisfactorily as 
before — while saving time — is a welcome relief. 


Radio /hack 


P.O. Box 2625, Fort Worth, Texas 761 13 



Radio Shack 

A Div. of Tandy Corp. 



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